**REGULAR CHEMISTRY LEARNING OBJECTIVES**

The specific learning objectives for each topic in the Regular course are listed here.

**TOPIC 1 Introduction & Measurement**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 1

**ALL students should;**

- Recall a definition of chemistry
- Understand the process and stages of scientific (logical) problem solving
- Understand and be able to use scientific notation (standard form) for representing numbers
- Recall and use some SI units
- Recall, and be able to use the rules for determining significant figures and rounding off
- Understand the difference between Precision and Accuracy
- Be able to interconvert between units using conversion factors
- Learn, and be able to use, formula for the conversion of the three different temperature units studied in TOPIC 1
- Learn, and be able to use the formula for density

**TOPIC 2 States of Matter**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 2

**ALL students should;**

- Recall the three states of matter and their general properties
- Recall the methods for converting between the three different states of matter
- Understand and recall definitions for physical and chemical change
- Understand heating & cooling curves
- Be able to recall and use the formula for calculating energy using specific heat capacity, enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization
- Know the difference between elements, mixtures and compounds

**TOPIC 3 Atoms, Elements & Ions**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 3

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recall a very brief history of atomic theory
- Know and understand the five main aspects of Dalton’s atomic theory
- Know the three particles that make up the atom and their relative charges, masses and positions in the atom
- Be able to use and understand symbols and formulae to represent elements and compounds
- Know what the term isotope means
- Be able to use the Atomic # and Mass # of an isotope to calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons
- Know what groups and periods are on the periodic table
- Know where to find metals, non-metals and metalloids on the periodic table
- Know that ions are charged particles and that charges are created by an imbalance in the number of protons and electrons
- Know that metals form +ve ions (Group 1 = +1, 2 = +2, 13 = +3 and the transition metals = various) by losing electrons
- Know that non-metals form -ve ions (Group 15 = -3, Group 16 = -2, Group 17 = -1) by gaining electrons

**TOPIC 4 Inorganic Nomenclature**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 4

**ALL students should;**

- Learn the names and formulae of common anions and cations listed on Regular Common Ions
- Know how to combine those anions and cations in the correct proportions to form ionic compounds with no net charge
- Know what is meant by a binary compound
- Be able to name binary compounds of metals and non-metals
- Be able to name binary compounds of two non-metals using the prefix system of mono, di, tri etc.
- Understand and be able to use the system of Roman numerals indicating charge on metals of varying oxidation state
- Be able to name simple binary acids
- Know what is meant by the term polyatomic ion
- Know what is meant by the terms oxyacid and oxyanion
- Be able to name oxyacids and oxyanions including those of carbon, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and nitrogen

**TOPIC 5 Chemical Reactions & Equations**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 5

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recognize evidence that suggests a chemical reaction has taken place
- Be able to write chemical equations in words
- Be able to write chemical equations using chemical formulae and chemical symbols (this requires knowledge, and correct use of, chemical nomenclature)
- Understand, and be able to use, state symbols as part of chemical equation writing
- Be able to balance chemical equations
- Understand why balancing chemical equations is important

**TOPIC 6 Qualitative Chemistry in Aqueous Solution**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 6

**ALL students should;**

- Understand that a reaction in aqueous solution is one that is carried out in water
- Understand the terms electrolyte, weak electrolyte and non-electrolyte and be able to predict which compounds fall into which category
- Be able to calculate the individual ion concentrations when ionic compounds are dissolved in water
- Understand the difference between, and be able to write, full, ionic and net ionic equations
- Learn and be able to apply solubility rules
- Recall that an acid is a hydrogen ion donor
- Recall that a base is a hydrogen ion acceptor
- Understand that in a neutralization reaction an acid and base react to form a salt and water
- Learn some reactions that produce gases as products and the chemical tests for those gases
- Understand that oxidation and reduction can be described in terms of loss and gain of electrons respectively
- Be able to find the oxidation number of an element within a compound
- Become familiar with some common oxidizing and reducing agents and the half-equations that represent their action
- Understand and be able to recognize the different types of REDOX reaction. Namely disproportionation, synthesis (combination), decomposition, combustion, single and double displacement (replacement) including metal displacement, hydrogen displacement from water and acids and halogen displacement
- Be able to use the reactivity series as a tool for predicting displacement reactions

**TOPIC 7 Stoichiometry**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 7

**ALL students should;**

- Understand and be able to apply to calculations the concept of atomic mass units (amu)
- Understand and be able to apply to calculations the concept of the mole and Avogadro’s number
- Understand and be able to apply to calculations the relationship between moles, mass and molar mass (RAM, RMM or RFM)
- Understand and be able to apply to calculations the concept of % by mass
- Understand the term empirical formula
- Be able to calculate empirical formulae from data
- Understand the relationship between empirical formulae and molecular formulae and be able to perform simple conversions between the two
- Understand that balanced equations give useful information about reacting ratio’s of moles
- Be able to use those reacting ratios to calculate moles and masses of reactants and products from given data
- Understand and be able to use the concept of limiting reactant
- Understand and be able to use the concept of percentage yield
- Recall that in this topic you are required to write chemical formulae and correct, balanced equations

**TOPIC 8 Gases**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 8

**ALL students should;**

- Recall and be able to use Boyle’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use Charles’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use Avogadro’s law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use the Combined gas law and the General gas law in calculations
- Recall and be able to use the Ideal gas law in calculations
- Be able to convert between different units of pressure
- Be able to convert between different units of temperature
- Recall the conditions that are used as standard in calculations
- Be able to use molar gas volume in calculations
- Understand the concept of, and be able to perform calculations involving, the root-mean-square-speed of gases

**TOPIC 9 Stoichiometry of Solutions**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 9

**ALL students should;**

- Understand AND be able to apply the concept of concentration
- Understand AND be able to apply the formula MOLES = CONCENTRATION x VOLUME for a solution
- Understand the relevance of AND be able to apply the concept of balanced chemical equations showing ratio’s of reacting moles
- Understand the principle and procedure of a titration
- Understand AND be able to apply data to calculations relating to the dilution of solutions

**TOPIC 10 Electronic Configuration & Periodicity**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 10

**ALL students should;**

- Understand the concept of electrons in shells and the principal quantum number
**only** - Understand the use of the terms s, p and d and their use in orbital notation
- Recall and understand the rules for filling orbitals and determining electronic configuration
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of the first 36 elements using the s, p and d notation
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of the first 36 elements using the noble gas core and s, p and d notation
- Be able to construct the electronic configuration of simple ions
- Recall the shapes of the s and p orbitals
- Recall that orbitals are electron probability maps
- Be able to describe electronic configurations using the electrons in boxes notation
- Understand that regular, repeatable patterns occur across periods and up and down groups in the periodic table
- Appreciate that these patterns sometimes have notable exceptions
- Recall and understand that the noble gases have full outer shells that represent stable electronic configurations and since chemical reactivity is determined by electronic configuration these elements are stable and relatively inert
- Recall how, and understand why, group 1, 2, 16 and 17 elements achieve pseudo noble gas electronic configurations to become more stable
- Recall the definition of ionization energy
- Recall and understand the variation in ionization energy when moving about the periodic table
- Be able to predict the group an element is in from ionization energy data
- Recall how and why atomic and ionic size vary when moving about the periodic table

**TOPIC 11 Chemical Bonding**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 11

**ALL students should;**

- Understand that when forming chemical bonds atoms are attempting to form more stable electronic configurations
- Understand the essential difference between intra and inter bonding
- Understand the concept of ionic bonding and the nature of the ionic bond
- Understand the concept of covalent bonding and the covalent bond
- Be able to draw Lewis structures
- Understand the concept of electronegativity
- Understand when molecules exhibit polarity
- Be able to predict the shapes of simple molecules and ions using Lewis structures
- Understand the occurrence and nature of dipole-dipole interactions
- Understand the occurrence and nature of London dispersion forces
- Understand the occurrence and nature of Hydrogen bonds

**TOPIC 12 Thermochemistry**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 12

**ALL students should;**

- Understand, be able to quote a definition and write suitable equations for Standard Enthalpy of Formation
- Understand, be able to quote a definition and write suitable equations for Standard Enthalpy of Combustion
- Understand and be able to use a Hess’s Law cycle or algeberic method to calculate a given enthalpy change
- Understand and be able to use in calculations, average bond energy terms
- Understand the meaning of the terms exothermic and endothermic

**TOPIC 13 Kinetics**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 13

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recall AND understand Collision Theory
- Be able to recall AND understand how temperature, concentration, surface area and catalysts affect a rate of reaction
- Understand AND be able to interpret a Maxwell-Boltzman distribution plot
- Understand AND be able to interpret an reaction profile plot
- Be able to deduce orders, rate equations and rate constants (including units) from initial rate data

**TOPIC 14 Acids & Bases**

The following list is a **GUIDE** to what you should study in order to be prepared for the Regular test on TOPIC 14

**ALL students should;**

- Be able to recall the Bronsted Lowry definition of an acid and a base
- Be able to identify acid base conjugate pairs
- Recall the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of degree of ionization/dissociation
- Be able to calculate pH of strong acids from hydrogen ion concentration and strong bases from hydroxide ion concentration
- Be able to sketch titration curves and be able to suggest a suitable indicator for a particular titration
- Understand the meaning of the term ‘equivalence point’