HONORS MATERIALS

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ORGANIC COURSE 2

ADRIAN

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AP CHEMISTRY TOPICS/LOs (2020 - PRESENT)

Here you’ll find the 91 official TOPICS, and the associated Learning Objectives (LOs) as defined by the College Board’s AP Chemistry Course and Exam Description (CED) that are applicable to 2020 exam forward. Each LO/TOPIC is further elucidated by the Essential Knowledge (EK) statements in the CED.

UNIT 01 - ATOMS, ELEMENTS & PERIODICITY

1.1 Calculate quantities of a substance or its relative number of particles using dimensional analysis and the mole concept

SPQ-1.A

1.2 Explain the quantitative relationship between the mass spectrum of an element and the masses of the element’s isotopes

SPQ-1.B

1.3 Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the empirical formula of a pure substance

SPQ-2.A

1.4 Explain the quantitative relationship between the elemental composition by mass and the composition

SPQ-2.B

1.5 Represent the electron configuration of an element or ions of an element using the Aufbau principle

SAP-1.A

1.6 Explain the relationship between the photoelectron spectrum of an atom or ion and: a. The electron configuration of the species. b. The interactions between the electrons and the nucleus

SAP-1.B

1.7 Explain the relationship between trends in atomic properties of elements and electronic structure and periodicity

SAP-2.A

1.8 Explain the relationship between trends in the reactivity of elements

SAP-2.B

 

UNIT 02 - CHEMICAL BONDING I

2.1 Explain the relationship between the type of bonding and the properties of the elements participating in the bond

SAP-3.A

2.2 Represent the relationship between potential energy and distance between atoms, based on factors that influence the interaction strength

SAP-3.B

2.3 Represent an ionic solid with a particulate model that is consistent with Coulomb’s Law and the properties of the constituent ions

SAP-3.C

2.4 Represent a metallic solid and/or alloy using a model to show essential characteristics of the structure and interactions

SAP-3.D

2.5 Represent a molecule with a Lewis diagram

SAP-4.A

2.6 Represent a molecule with a Lewis Diagram that accounts for resonance between equivalent structures of that uses formal charge to select between nonequivalent structures

SAP-4.B

2.7 Based on the relationship between Lewis diagrams, VSEPR theory, bond orders, and bond polarities: a. Explain structural properties of molecules b. Explain electron properties of molecules

SAP-4.C

 

UNIT 03 - CHEMICAL BONDING II & GASES

3.1 Explain the relationship between the chemical structures of molecules and the relative strength of their intermolecular forces when: a. The molecules are of the same chemical species. b. The molecules are of two different chemical species

SAP-5.A

3.2 Explain the relationship among the macroscopic properties of a substance, the particulate-level structure of the substance, and the interactions between these particles

SAP-5.B

3.3 Represent the differences between solid, liquid and gas phases using a particulate-level model

SAP-6.A

3.4 Explain the relationship between the macroscopic properties of a sample of gas or mixture of gases using the ideal gas law

SAP-7.A

3.5 Explain the relationship between the motion of particles and the macroscopic properties of gases with: a. The kinetic molecular theory (KMT). b. A particulate model. c. A graphical representation

SAP-7.B

3.6 Explain the relationship among the non-ideal behaviors of gases, interparticle forces and/or volumes

SAP-7.C

3.7 Calculate the number of solute particles, volume or molarity of solutions

SPQ-3.A

3.8 Using particulate models for mixtures: a. Represent interactions between components. b. Represent concentrations of components

SPQ-3.B

3.9 Explain the relationship between the solubility of ionic and molecular compounds in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, and the intermolecular interactions between particles

SPQ-3.C

3.10 Explain the relationship between the solubility of ionic and molecular compounds in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, and the intermolecular interactions between particles

SPQ-3.C

3.11 Explain the relationship between a region of the electromagnetic spectrum and the types of molecular or electronic transitions associated with that region

SAP-8.A

3.12 Explain the properties of an absorbed or emitted photon in relationship to an electronic transition in an atom or molecule

SAP-8.B

3.13 Explain the amount of light absorbed by a solution of molecules or ions in relationship to the concentration, path length, and molar absorptivity

SAP-8.C

UNIT 04 - CHEMICAL REACTIONS

4.1 Identify evidence of chemical and physical changes in matter

TRA-1.A

4.2 Represent changes in matter with a balanced chemical or net ionic equation: a. For physical changes. b. For given information about the identity of the reactants and/or product. c. For ions in a given chemical reaction

TRA-1.B

4.3 Represent a given chemical reaction of physical process with a consistent particulate model

TRA-1.C

4.4 Explain the relationship between the macroscopic characteristics and bond interactions for: a. Chemical processes b. Physical processes

TRA-1.D

4.5 Explain changes in the amounts of reactants and products based on the balanced reaction equation for a chemical process

SPQ-4.A

4.6 Identify the equivalence point in a titration based on the amounts of the titrant and analyte, assuming the titration reaction goes to completion

SPQ-4.B

4.7 Identify a reaction as acid-base, oxidation-reduction, or precipitation

TRA-2.A

4.8 Identify species as Brønsted-Lowry acids, bases, and/or conjugate acid-base pairs, based on proton-transfer involving those species

TRA-2.B

4.9 Represent a balanced REDOX reaction equation using half-reactions

TRA-2.C

 

UNIT 05 - CHEMICAL KINETICS

5.1 Explain the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and experimental parameters

TRA-3.A

5.2 Represent experimental data with a consistent rate law expression

TRA-3.B

5.3 Identify the rate law expression of a chemical reaction using data that show how the concentrations of reaction species change over time

TRA-3.C

5.4 Represent an elementary reaction as a rate law expression using stoichiometry

TRA-4.A

5.5 Explain the relationship between the rate of an elementary reaction and the frequency, energy, and orientation of molecular collisions

TRA-4.B

5.6 Represent the activation energy and overall energy change in an elementary reaction using a reaction energy profile

TRA-4.C

5.7 Identify the components of a reaction mechanism

TRA-5.A

5.8 Identify the rate law for a reaction from a mechanism in which the first step is rate limiting

TRA-5.B

5.9 Identify the rate law for a reaction from a mechanism in which the first step is not rate limiting

TRA-5.C

5.10 Represent the activation energy and overall energy change in a multi-step reaction with a reaction energy profile

TRA-5.D

5.11 Explain the relationship between the effect of a catalyst on a reaction and changes in the reaction mechanism

ENE-1.A

 

UNIT 06 - CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS I

6.1 Explain the relationship between experimental observations and energy changes associated with a chemical or physical transformation

ENE-2.A

6.2 Represent a chemical or physical transformation with an energy diagram

ENE-2.B

6.3 Explain the relationship between the transfer of thermal energy and molecular collisions

ENE-2.C

6.4 Calculate the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing heating/ cooling based on the amount of the substance, the heat capacity, and the change in temperature

ENE-2.D

6.5 Explain changes in the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing a phase transition based on the amount of the substance in moles and the molar enthalpy of the phase transition

ENE-2.E

6.6 Calculate the heat q absorbed or released by a system undergoing a chemical reaction in relationship to the amount of the reacting substance in moles and the molar enthalpy of reaction

ENE-2.F

6.7 Calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction based on the average bond energies of bonds broken and formed in the reaction

ENE-3.A

6.8 Calculate the enthalpy change for a chemical or physical process based on the standard enthalpies of formation

ENE-3.B

6.9 Represent a chemical or physical process as a sequence of steps

ENE-3.C

6.9* Explain the relationship between the enthalpy of a chemical or physical process and the sum of the enthalpies of the individual steps

ENE-3.D

*SOMEWHAT INEXPLICABLY, TWO LOs (ENE-3.C and ENE-3.D), fall under TOPIC 6.9

 

UNIT 07 - CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

7.1 Explain the relationship between the occurrence of a reversible chemical or physical process, and the establishment of equilibrium, to experimental observations

TRA-6.A

7.2 Explain the relationship between the direction in which a reversible reaction proceeds and the relative rates of the forward and reverse reactions

TRA-6.B

7.3 Represent the reaction quotient Qc or Qp, for a reversible reaction, and the corresponding equilibrium expressions Kc = Qc or Kp = Qp

TRA-7.A

7.4 Calculate Kc or Kp based on experimental observations of concentrations or pressures at equilibrium

TRA-7.B

7.5 Explain the relationship between very large or very small values of K and the relative concentrations of chemical species at equilibrium

TRA-7.C

7.6 Represent a multi-step process with an overall equilibrium expression, using the constituent K expressions for each individual reaction

TRA-7.D

7.7 Identify the concentrations or partial pressures of chemical species at equilibrium based on the initial conditions and the equilibrium constant

TRA-7.E

7.8 Represent a system undergoing a reversible reaction with a particulate model

TRA-7.F

7.9 Identify the response of a system at equilibrium to an external stress, using Le Châtelier’s principle

TRA-8.A

7.10 Explain the relationships between Q, K, and the direction in which a reversible reaction will proceed to reach equilibrium

TRA-8.B

7.11 Calculate the solubility of a salt based on the value of Ksp for the salt

SPQ-5.A

7.12 Identify the solubility of a salt, and/or the value of Ksp for the salt, based on the concentration of a common ion already present in solution

SPQ-5.B

7.13 Identify the qualitative effect of changes in pH on the solubility of a salt

SPQ-5.C

7.14 Explain the relationship between the solubility of a salt and changes in the enthalpy and entropy that occur in the dissolution process

SPQ-5.D

UNIT 08 - ACIDS & BASES

8.1 Calculate the values of pH and pOH, based on Kw and the concentration of all species present in a neutral solution of water

SAP-9.A

8.2 Calculate pH and pOH based on concentrations of all species in a solution of a strong acid or a strong base

SAP-9.B

8.3 Explain the relationship among pH, pOH, and concentrations of all species in a solution of a monoprotic weak acid or weak base

SAP-9.C

8.4 Explain the relationship among the concentrations of major species in a mixture of weak and strong acids and bases

SAP-9.D

8.5 Explain results from the titration of a mono- or polyprotic acid or base solution, in relation to the properties of the solution and its components

SAP-9.E

8.6 Explain the relationship between the strength of an acid or base and the structure of the molecule or ion

SAP-9.F

8.7 Explain the relationship between the predominant form of a weak acid or base in solution at a given pH and the pKa of the conjugate acid or the pKb of the conjugate base

SAP-10.A

8.8 Explain the relationship between the ability of a buffer to stabilize pH and the reactions that occur when an acid or a base is added to a buffered solution

SAP-10.B

8.9 Identify the pH of a buffer solution based on the identity and concentrations of the conjugate acid-base pair used to create the buffer

SAP-10.C

8.10 Explain the relationship between the buffer capacity of a solution and the relative concentrations of the conjugate acid and conjugate base components of the solution

SAP-10.D

UNIT 09 - CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS II & ELECTROCHEMISTRY

9.1 Identify the sign and relative magnitude of the entropy change associated with chemical or physical processes

ENE-4.A

9.2 Calculate the entropy change for a chemical or physical process based on the absolute entropies of the species involved in the process

ENE-4.B

9.3 Explain whether a physical or chemical process is thermodynamically favored based on an evaluation of ∆G°

ENE-4.C

9.4 Explain, in terms of kinetics, why a thermodynamically favored reaction might not occur at a measurable rate

ENE-4.D

9.5 Explain whether a process is thermodynamically favored using the relationships between K, ΔG°, and T

ENE-5.A

9.6 Explain the relationship between external sources of energy or coupled reactions and their ability to drive thermodynamically unfavorable processes

ENE-5.B

9.7 Explain the relationship between the physical components of an electrochemical cell and the overall operational principles of the cell

ENE-6.A

9.8 Explain whether an electrochemical cell is thermodynamically favored, based on its standard cell potential and the constituent half-reactions within the cell

ENE-6.B

9.9 Explain the relationship between deviations from standard cell conditions and changes in the cell potential

ENE-6.C

9.10 Calculate the amount of charge flow based on changes in the amounts of reactants and products in an electrochemical cell

ENE-6.D